(3) The collision among the parti­cles of the primordial matter can never generate rota­tory motion in it. Solve this simple math problem and enter the result. As the star came nearer, the tide increased in size. According to Immanuel Kant as the heat in­creased, the size of nebula increased and as the size of nebula increased, the angular velocity or rotatory speed further increased. The planets of the outer bands of the disc were of low density because they were formed by the ‘freez­ing out’ process of the gaseous matter, The redistribu­tion of matter and ‘averaging of the dynamic character­istics’ of the disc resulted in the placement of the planets according to well-known Titius-Bode law of planetary distances (equation 2.5). The angular momentum could not be produced by the passing star. Nebular Hypothesis; Planetesimal Hypothesis; Gaseous Tidal Hypothesis; Binary Star Hypothesis; Gas Dust Cloud Hypothesis; Nabular Hypothesis. These dark matter were called ‘inter­stellar dusts’ by Schimidt. Mercury ∞ Venus o, Earth 1, Mars 2 etc. In other words, all the matters of each ring were aggregated at a point to form a core or a knot which ultimately grew as a planet in due course of time. There are various scientific theories of origin and evolution of the earth. Early Theories Nebular Hypothesis (Kant and Laplace) A huge mass of swirling cold gas and dust (Nebula) in an area … Inspite of severe criti­cism the hypothesis was considered a great step for­ward in the field of cosmogony and ‘he almost rever­berated the mid-18th century with his words…Give me matter and I will build a world out of it.’. The Origin Of The Earth According To Laplace: Based on aforesaid assumptions Laplace maintained that there was a hot and rotating huge gaseous Nebula in the space.There was gradual loss of heat from the outer surface of the Nebula through radiation due … The scientific researches about the universe have given ample evidences of the presence of ‘dark matter’ in the form of gas and dust particles known as ‘gas and dust cloud’ in the universe. He opined that nine rings were separated from the nebula itself and these rings were condensed to form nine planets. Thus, it is apparent that according to Kant the earth was formed due to aggregation of all the matter of the ring which was separated from the nebula due to centrifugal force. The gaseous hypothesis of Kant was based on the sound principles of Newton’s law of gravitationand rotatory motion. When the giant approach­ing star came nearest to the companion star, large amount of matter was ejected from the companion star due to maximum gravitational force exerted by the giant approaching star. In fact, the degree of heat and pressure decides the level of heaviness of the elements in the process. The first is how to dispose of the AM possessed by turbulent protostellar clouds. The second equation shows that there is an inverse relation between angular velocity or the speed of rotatory motion and the radius or the size of the rotatory body. He did not offer any explanation. Prehistory & the Story of Earth; The dark matter of gaseous cloud and dust particles had their own angular momentum. According to Binary Star Hypothesis, the planets, at the time of their formation, were for off from the primitive sun. Oparin-Haldane theory is also called chemical theory or naturalistic theory. Based on aforesaid assumptions Laplace main­tained that there was a hot and rotating huge gaseous nebula in the space. Laplace further maintained that the original ring was divided into nine rings and each ring moved away from the other ring. Scientific Theories of the Origin of the Earth. October 30 . Particles began to collide against each other under their mutual gravitational attractions. on Octo­ber 26, 4004 B.C. : (i) The problem of great distance between the planets and the sun, (ii) The problem of the angular momentum of the planets, and. The theory was postulated to explain a perceived cycle of mass extinctions in Earth's history. (5) If we accept the tenet of Laplace that the planets were formed from the nebula, then the planets must have been in liquid state in their initial stage. It was believed that the distance between two stars might have been about 48,00,000 to 64,00,000 km. It means that the approaching star might have been at a far greater distance from the primitive sun. Send My Free Book . 1. It is an erroneous statement of mechanism. : The companion star was of giant size and later on became supernova due to nuclear reaction. It may be pointed out that the asteroids were still inside the disc and were revolving in the evolutionary direction of the disc. In fact, according to Kant there was a primeval, slowly rotating cloud of gas (now called a nebula) and matter comprised of very cold, solid and motionless particles. Binary theories. Gradually it cooled and contracted and its speed increased. Fission Theory: At the most basic level Fission Theory states that very early in Earth history the Earth was spinning many times faster than it does today. Thus, the dust particles after being combined and condensed were changed into a flat disc which started revolving around the sun. In fact, Kant’s hypothesis was declared dynamically unsound: (1) It was one of the basic assumptions of Kant’s hypothesis that there was primordial matter in the universe but he never ex­plained the source of the origin of the primordial matter. It broke into pieces-forming nine planets of the solar system. The most widely accepted theory of planetary formation, known as the nebular hypothesis, maintains that 4.6 billion years ago, the Solar System formed from the gravitational collapse of a giant molecular cloud which was light years across. LENGTH: 1:01:57. F. Hoyle, a mathematician of Cambridge Uni­versity (U.K.) presented his speculative theory known as ‘supernova hypothesis’ in the year 1946. There are two fundamental theories regarding the formation of the solar system, Nebular Hypothesis or Gas Collapse and the Accretion Disk Model. What is a Ground Source Heat Pump? In terms of modern scientific language it can be said (but not described by Kant) that the temperature of primordial matter was near about 2730C or absolute zero or O0k. It may be pointed out that the explosion of the companion star or supernova generated intense heat equivalent to 5 × 109 degree C which was sufficient enough to start the process of nuclear fusion. The rise in temperature also changed the state of primordial matter from solid to gaseous particles. (7) About one hundred years later from the date of the postulation of Laplace hypothesis great British physicists James Clerk Maxwell and Sir James Jeans showed that the mass in the rings was not enough to provide gravitational attraction for condensation to form individual planets. This separated ring of material started moving around the nebula. Nebular Hypothesis. There are various scientific theories of origin and evolution of the earth. Only the solid mass of matter has the property to perform rotatory and revolutionary motions along a near circu­lar path without losing its original shape. However, the nebular hypothesis is rendered untenable on the basis of the following demerits: (1) Laplace assumed that initially there was a hot and rotating nebula but he did not describe the source of the origin of the nebula. In the beginning the planets might have been nearer to each other and thus matter might have been ejected from these planets due to their mutual attraction and thus satellites might have been ejected from these planets due to their mutual attraction and thus satellites might have been formed from these matter. (4) If the sun is the remaining nucleus of the nebula as claimed by Laplace, it should have a small bulge around its middle part (equator) which would point out the probable separation of irregular ring from the sun but there is no such bulge in the middle part of the sun. (2) From the very beginning huge and hot nebula was rotating (spinning) on its axis. Gaseous Tidal Theory . The ejected matter started revolving in the direction of the giant approaching star and thus opposite to the direction of revolution of companion star. French mathematician Laplace propounded his ‘nebular hypothesis’ in the year 1796. Before uploading and sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. Content Guidelines 2. Binary Star Hypothesis – Russell Propounded in 1937. According to Hoyle initially there were two stars in the universe viz. Inside you'll learn just how mysterious this all is, as we reveal the different scientific theories on the origins of life on Earth. Russel As per the … (iii) The angular momentum of dark matter of the disc. It is not only the study of the Earth as we see it today, but the history of the Earth as it has evolved to its present condition. Prohibited Content 3. The Human Origin Project. Later on planets were formed from the ejected matter. But the planets in liquid state cannot rotate and revolve around the sun properly because the rotatory motion of different layers of the liquid is not always equal. Hoyle and Lyttleton: The planets of the solar system have an originated from the expanding gases obtained from the explosion of a supernova. Report a Violation 10. He assumed that supernaturally created primordial hard matter was scattered in the universe. To remove the shortcomings of tidal hypothesis of sir James Jeans. With the passage of time these embryos captured more and more matter and thus grew in size to become asteroids. Discuss the different theories like the early theory (nuclear hypothesis by Kant), binary theory, revised nebular hypothesis, big bang theory. If the radius of any rotating (spinning) nebula increases or if the nebula expands in size, the angular velocity or the velocity of the rotation of the nebula will decrease. It may be pointed out that flat disc of captured dark matter started revolving around the sun under the combined impacts of three types of motions e.g. There are many ideas, but few clear facts.. In the process comparatively heavier element helium is formed and vast amount of energy is also released. By the repetition of the same process a system of concentric rings (nine) were separated from the nebula. Consequently, the outer layer was condensed due to excessive cooling and so it could not rotate with the still cooling and contracting central nucleus of the nebula and thus the outer ring (layer) was separated from the remaining part of the nebula. Perhaps life didn’t start on Earth at all. On the basis of the number of heavenly bodies involved in the origin of the solar system and the earth the scientific concepts are further divided into three groups e.g. According to the ‘interstellar dust hypothesis’ our sun during its ‘galac­tic revolution’ captured the dark matter of the uni­verse. Explain the purpose of Juno Mission and discuss how it would be useful in understanding about formation of Earth. Gotthard Base Tunnel (Rail Tunnel) Design Engineering, Construction & Cost, Structural & Non Structural Defects in Building Construction, SAP 2000 and ETABS Training Course on Realworld Civil Engineering Projects, German philosopher, Kant and French mathematician, Laplace. Satellites were formed from the planets due to repetition of the aforesaid processes and mechanism. It rotates slowly. Philosophers, religious scholars and scientists have lots of ideas about where the universe came from, but the most widely-held scientific theory is the Big Bang Theory. In order to remove the aforesaid defects Laplace assumed certain axioms for the postulation of his nebular hypothesis to solve the riddle of the origin of the earth: (1) He assumed that there was a huge and hot gaseous nebula in the space. Primitive Earth. Earth is part of the solar system. When this stage was reached the materials at the equator of the nebula became weightless. ... How to help re-write human history; What is the Human Origin Project? 16:04 Tidal Theory – Filament form would break down and form planets. Immanuel Kant, a German philosopher gave this theory. 2. Thus, there would have been no effect of tidal force of the giant approaching star on the primitive sun but large amount of matter of the companion star was attracted towards the giant approaching star because of its massive tidal force (gravitational pull). As the giant approaching star came nearer to the companion star, the gravitational and tidal force con­tinued to increase and hence the bulge on the outer surface of the companion star started growing towards the giant approaching star. Account Disable 11. Thus, the particles having larger amount of centrifugal force were thrown out towards the margins of the rotating disc of dark matter around the sun while the particles having small amount of centrifugal force were attracted towards the band of the disc nearer to the sun. Though Russell solved, to some extent, the problems of distances between the planets and the sun and angular momentum of different members of the solar system by assuming the origin of the earth with the help of two stars besides the sun and by ejecting the required matter from the companion star (and not from the sun as assumed by James Jeans) to form planets. 0:26 Gaseous Mass Theory – Kant. Thus, the initial primordial matter gradually changed in hot rotating nebula. Kant’s hypothesis envisages that ‘as the heat increased the size of the nebula (or radius of the nebula) increased and as the size of the nebula increased, the angular velocity or the rotatory speed further increased.’. Several stars, including the Sun, formed within the collapsing cloud. Most experts agree that all life today evolved by common descent from a single primitive lifeform. Even they were also distantly placed from each other, but, after the disappearance of the giant intruding star the planets were brought under … It may be pointed out that Laplace propounded his hypothesis without mathematical formulation. Wild New Theory on Lunar History. How does it Work? THEORIES OFTHEORIES OF ORIGIN OF THEORIGIN OF THE SOLAR SYSTEMSOLAR SYSTEM 2. According to this hypothesis, the planets were moulded out of a cloud of material associated with a young Sun, which was rotating slowly. Part 1 of 3 – Theories on Origin of the Earth. Thus, the planets of our solar system were formed due to condensation of the matter of the disc formed of the matter thrown out of the supernova due to its violent explosion. 2. The solar nebula theory (also known as the planetesimal hypothesis, or condensation theory ) describes the solar system as the natural result of the operation of the various laws of physics. (v) Large and peculiar distribution of angular momentum among the planets of sloar system. The origin of life on Earth is a scientific problem which is not yet solved. In the beginning the ‘companion star’ was revolving around the primi­tive sun. Origin of earth. Hoyle maintained that when the companion star was violently exploded, the recoil of the gigantic stellar explosion threw the nucleus of the companion star out of the gravitational field of the primitive sun. In 1796, a mathematician Pierre-Simon Laplace reexamined it. He further argued that the random motion of the particles also generated rotatory motion in the primordial matter. There are two angular momentum (AM) problems associated with the formation of stars in general and the solar system in particular. Start your journey today. Let us know in the comments what you think about the concepts in this article! With continuous rise in temperature and rate of rotatory motion the nebula started expanding in size. This gave extra impetus of the rate of rotatory motion (spinning) of the primordial matter. The intense heat and nuclear fusion became responsible for the formation of heavy ele­ments (e.g., helium, carbon, oxygen, silicon, nitrogen, etc.). Kant postulated his gaseous hypothesis of the origin of the earth on the basis of a few assumptions. Conditions suitable for origin of life existed only upon primitive earth. It may be pointed out that energy, which is emitted by any star in the form of light, heat, etc., is generated by the process known as ‘nuclear fusion’ wherein atoms of lighter elements combine under intense heat and pressure to form atoms of heavier elements, releasing vast amount of energy. These matter were condensed to form satellites of the planets. Thus, the very foundation, on which Kant’s hypothesis was based, is proved unsound and wrong. The outstanding merit of the ‘inter-stellar dust hypothesis’ of Otto Schimidt is that it solves almost all of the problems of the peculiar characteristic features of our solar system like: (i) Near circular and similar planes of orbits of the planets; (ii) Revolution in the equatorial plane of the sun closely matching with the orbital planes of the planets; (iii) Placement of planets according to their size on the basis of well-founded laws; (iv) High density planets in the outer circle of the solar system and. 4:08 Nebular Theory – Laplace. Content Filtration 6. gradual cooling and contraction, resulted in to continuous decrease in the size and volume of the nebula. It is, thus, obvious that the planets of our solar system were not formed from the primitive sun but were formed from the heavy elements which were formed from the matter thrown out of the supernova due to nuclear reactions and violent explosion. It may be pointed out that since the lighter matters were pushed towards the margins of the disc (as explained above) and heavy matters were pushed towards the inner bands of the disc, the planets formed in the inner bands of the disc were also of higher density than the planets of the outer bands of the disc. Thus, reduction in the size and volume of the nebula increased the circular velocity (rotatory motion) of the nebula. Thoeries of the Origin of Solar System 1. Immanuel Kant, a German philosopher, gave this theory. Otto Schimidt, a Russian scientist, proposed his ‘Inter-Stellar Dust Hypothesis’ in 1943 to explain the complex problems of the origin and characteristics of the solar system and the earth. for 1+3, enter 4. the Earth's surface, but the study of the ocean floors, and the interior of the Earth. Early Theories. Jeans and Jeffrey proposed the theory in 1925; Large star came near the sun. Panspermia. Each such agglomeration was later on cooled and condensed to form planet. Later the ring cooled and took form of a planet, On repetition of the process all other planets came into being, Sun should have the greatest angular momentum because of its mass and situated in the center, however, it has only two percent of momentum of the solar system, How the hot gaseous material condensed in to rings, Chamberlin and Moulton proposed the theory in 1904, The sun existed before the formation of planets, Because of the gravitation pull of the star, small gaseous bodies were separated from the sun, These bodies on cooing became small planet's, During rotation the small planets collided and form planets. Gases being less in volume were more destabilized and less system­atically arranged while the dust particles being more in amount and quantity were more stabilized and system­atically arranged. It may be pointed out that in the beginning the gaseous cloud and dust particles were not well arranged and stabilized and hence these were revolving around the sun separately. The Binary Star Hypothesis regarding the origin of the Earth The Binary Star Hypothesis regarding the origin of the earth was propounded by H.N. Stay informed - subscribe to our newsletter. Another theory, called binary accretion, assumes that the … He further assumed that the particles began to collide against each other under their mutual gravitational attractions. Where D is the distance of planets from the sun in astronomical unit and n is a coefficient, the value of which for each planet is constant e.g. Collision of the particles also generated fric­tion which generated heat, with the result the tempera­ture of the primordial matter started rising. No one can change the mass of the rotating body, that is why it is constant. This statement is erroneous as it is against the law of conservation of angular momentum. The light from distant galaxies is shifted to lower frequencies (red shift) similiar to the way the sound of a horn on a passing train or car shifts to a lower pitch. Though Immanuel Kant based his gaseous hy­pothesis on scientific principles (Newton’s law of gravitation) to solve the problem of the origin of the solar system and the earth but his hypothesis has been rendered baseless because it is based on several erro­neous facts of science. The nebula started spinning so rapidly that an irregular ring was separated from the middle part of the nebula and was ultimately thrown off due to centrifugal force. He meant the probability of binary accretion, which he studied. He assumed that supernaturally created primordial hard matter was scattered in the universe. In the beginning his hypothesis acclaimed world-wide ap­preciation but later on it was disproved as it was based on erroneous concepts and wrong application of Newtonian laws of gravitation. The same type of nuclear fusion was also going on in Hoyle’s primitive sun and the companion star but the rate of nuclear fusion was many times greater in the core of the companion star than the primitive sun. Though there is no common consensus among the scientists about the origin of our solar system but it can be safely argued that all planets of our solar system are believed to have been formed by the same process. The most outstanding characteristic feature of this hypothesis is that the earth and the solar system have been taken to have been formed from gas and dust particles, the genesis of which has not been explained by Schimidt. Nebula – It is a primordial (primitive) amorphous (without shape) mass of cloud of gas and dust. Thus, the matter of this disc became building material for the formation of future planets. (2) Kant did not explain the source of energy to cause random motion of the particles of the primordial matter which were cold and motionless in the initial stage. Later on one giant star (the third one) named as ‘approaching star’ came near the companion star but the direction of revolution of the approaching star was opposite to that of the companion star. Why did only 9 rings come out from the irregular ring detached from the nebula? Thus, he solved the problem of heat of the nebula through this assumption. It is quite unreasonable to imagine the situation that all matter of one ring could condense into one incandescent gaseous mass to form one planet. Revised Nebular Hypothesis The ‘supernova hypothesis’ of F.Hoyle helps us in solving 3 basic problems of the origin of the earth and the solar system raised by the critics since the time of the postulation of ‘tidal hypothesis’ of James Jeans viz. (3) The nebula was continuously cooling due to loss of heat from its outer surface through the process of radiation and thus it was continuously reducing in size due to contraction on cooling. Angular momentum is the prod­uct of the mass, angular velocity and the square of the radius of the rotating body. These processes e.g. (6) According to the nebular hypothesis all the satellites should revolve in the direction of their lather- planets but contrary to this a few satellites of Saturn and Jupiter revolve in the opposite direction of their father planets. VIEW ALL PODCASTS . E.g. The stars generally contain hydrogen. By the repetition of same process rings were separated from the newly formed planets and the materials of each ring were condensed to form satellites of the concerned planets. French scientist Roche suggested modification in the nebular hypothesis of Laplace during mid-19th century. The most prominent scientific theory about the origin of the Earth involves a spinning cloud of dust called a solar nebula. Early Earth History & The Great Flood. Binary theories Various scientists and philosophers have pro­pounded from time to time their concepts, hypotheses and theories to unravel the mystery and to solve the riddle of the problems of the origin and evolution of our solar system in general and of the earth in particular but none of these could be accepted by majority of the scientific community. Theories about the creation of the earth include the theory of special creation, organic evolution and materialistic theory. Disclaimer 8. Image Guidelines 4. Angular momentum of any rotating body can never be changed unless an external force is applied. It means that all the concepts, hypotheses and theories propounded for the origin of the solar system are also applicable for the origin of the earth. While religions have relied on creation stories to explain how life on Earth began, scientists have tried to hypothesize possible ways that inorganic molecules (the building blocks of life) joined together to form living cells.There are several hypotheses about how life started on Earth that are still being studied today. All the views and concepts pertaining to the origin of the earth may be divided into two groups e.g. The intense heat of the sun dispersed the gase­ous particles towards the margins of the disc (except oxygen which combines with iron chemically). Copyright 9. German philosopher, Kant and French mathematician, Laplace; Earth, planets and sun originated from Nebula. It appears that Laplace’s hypothesis is just the modified version of Kant’s hypothesis. He elaborated his concepts about the origin of the solar system and the earth in his book entitled ‘Exposition of the World System’. Thus, the nebula started spinning at very fast speed and consequently the centrifugal force became so great that it exceeded the centripetal force. (iii) The problem of heavier elements of the material of the planets than the sun. Nemesis is a theoretical dwarf star thought to be a companion to our sun. The theory failed to explain how the planetesimals had become one planet, Jeans and Jeffrey proposed the theory in 1925. The binary accretion theory is the theory of the moon and the earth forming at the same time as the other planets during the big bang theory, the genesis of the universe. Perhaps it was seeded across the solar system … • Sun was considered young and slowly rotating. SIGN UP LEARN. This was the reason that cold matter was initially motionless (according to the molecular theory of matter). Two-dimensional calculations of the gravitational infall of rotating gas clouds by several authors now indicate that stars are formed in groups or clusters rather than as single entities. 7 Theories on the Origin of Life. Collision among the dust particles started the process of aggregation and accretion around the bigger particles which became the embryos of the future planets but the gas particles could not condense as they could not be organized due to their continued motion. : Since the religious concepts do not have any logical and scientific basis, these are discarded by modern scientific community. in its early molten or semi-molten state the rapid rotation distorted the shape of the planet and part of the planet was thrown off and then accreted to form the Moon (see Figure 1). The intense heat also formed heavy particles which re­mained in the inner bands of the disc. Kant postulated his gaseous hypothesis of the origin of the earth on the basis of a few assumptions. Modern theory of planetary origins also explicitly rejects any idea that our solar system is unique or special, thus ruling out catastrophe theories. Weathering - Definition and Types of Weathering, The Interior Structure of the Earth - Interior Earth Layers, Effect of Rock Structure and Composition on Weathering. Thus, under the combined impact of these three types of motions each and every particle of dark matter of the universe started redistributing itself on the basis of mass, density, dimension and the existing amount of cen­trifugal force (generated due to the revolution of matter around the sun) tending to push the particles away from the sun and the centripetal force (generated due to gravitational pull of the sun) tending to push the particles towards the sun. Gaseous tide detached when star move away. Let us understand angular momentum. According to dynamical theory the ring may break up into several parts and thus several planets may be formed due to condensation of small parts. Russell, an American astronomer, pro­pounded his ‘binary star hypothesis’ in the year 1937 to remove the shortcomings of tidal hypothesis of Sir James Jeans. : (i) Monistic concept (involving only one heavenly body, (ii) Dualistic concept (involving two heavenly bodies) and. The origins of life cannot be dated as precisely, but there is evidence that bacteria-like organisms lived on Earth 3.5 billion years ago, and they may have existed even earlier, when the first solid crust formed, almost 4 billion years ago. 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